Understanding the Health Insurance Mandate

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Understanding the Health Insurance Mandate

Understanding the Health Insurance MandateWe hope this post helps you understand the Health Insurance Mandates.

For family sizes larger than 4, increase the 100% rate by $4,020 for each additional child. Dollar amounts for Alaska and Hawaii are larger. Note that the table is condensed for this brochure and the actual percentage of poverty level will need to be extrapolated for income not shown in the table. For 2014, the FPL amounts are those in effect on October 1, 2013, the opening date for 2014 enrollment in plans offered through a government marketplace.

Credit/Subsidy Qualifications

To qualify for the credit, an individual must:

  • Have household income for the year of at least 100% but not more than 400% of the federal poverty level
  • Purchase the insurance through a government marketplace (exchange)
  • Not be claimed as a dependent of another
  • Not be eligible for minimum essential care through Medicaid
  • If married, file a joint tax return
  • Not be offered minimum essential insurance under an employer-sponsored plan

How Much Will the Subsidy Be?

The amount of the subsidy is based on need and therefore those in the lowest percentage of the poverty level will receive the greatest subsidy. The government has predetermined how much each family must pay toward their own insurance in the form of a percentage of the family’s household income. To determine how much a family must pay toward their own insurance, first determine where their income falls within the poverty table above and then determine their percentage from the table below. That percentage represents the portion of their household income that they should pay toward their own insurance.

Note: the table is condensed for this brochure and the actual percentage of household income that must be paid toward one’s own insurance will need to be extrapolated for poverty levels between those shown.

Once the percentage in the right-hand column is determined, multiply that by the family’s household income to determine what the family’s annual responsibility is and divide it by 12 to determine their monthly responsibility.

Then, to determine the subsidy, go to the government marketplace and determine the cost of the Silver (2) level of insurance for the family and subtract the amount they are required to pay themselves; the difference, if any, is the subsidy.

Example: Family of two with a household income of $31,020. From the Federal Poverty Level Chart it is determined that a family of 2 with that income is at 200% of the federal poverty level. Using the 200% of poverty level it is determined from the second table that their responsibility toward their own insurance should be 6.3% of their household income or $1,954 (.063 x $31,020) or $162.83 per month. If the cost of the Silver level of insurance is $350 per month, then the premium subsidy would be $187.17 ($350 – $162.83).

(2) Insurance acquired through the marketplace (exchange) is available in four levels of cost (premium), with varying metal designations. The least expensive is the Bronze coverage, which is also the insurance that provides the “minimum essential coverage” needed to avoid a penalty. Next is the Silver level, which is referred to as the “benchmark premium.” The Silver or benchmark premium is the one used when determining the subsidy. The Gold and Platinum designations complete the four levels of coverage. The Bronze coverage, on an overall average, is supposed to cover 60% of the insured’s medical cost. Silver plans cover 70%, the Gold 80%, and the Platinum 90%.

Paying Back Excess Subsidies

When an insured individual receives a subsidy in excess of the allowable credit based upon the current year’s household income, some portion, but not necessarily all, of the excess must be paid back on the tax return for the year. If the household income is above 400% of the poverty level then the entire amount of the excess must be repaid. If the insured’s household income is between 100% and 400% of the poverty level, then payback is capped at the following amounts:

Penalty for Not Being Insured

Beginning in 2014, there is a penalty for not being insured unless one of the exemptions mentioned earlier is met. The penalty is being phased in over three years. The monthly penalty for 2014 is the greater of $7.92 per uninsured adult plus $3.96 for each uninsured child(3), but not to exceed $23.75 per month for a family, OR, 1% of household income in excess of the individual’s income tax filing threshold(4) divided by 12.

In 2016, when the penalty is fully phased in, the monthly penalty will be $57.92 per uninsured adult and $28.96 per uninsured child(3), not to exceed $173.75 per family OR 2.5% of household income over the income tax filing threshold(4) divided by 12.

The penalty can never be greater than the national average premium for a minimum essential coverage plan purchased through a government marketplace (exchange).

(3) The child rate will apply to family members under the age of 18.

(4) Filing threshold is the sum of the standard deduction and personal exemption amounts for the tax filer and spouse, if any.

Example: A married couple without insurance in 2014 has one dependent child and a household income of $50,000. The couple’s standard deduction is $12,400 and with two exemptions at $3,950 each, their filing threshold for 2014 is $20,300. Their monthly penalty is the greater of $19.80 (2 x $7.92 plus $3.96) or $24.75 (.01 x ($50,000 – $20,300)/12). Thus their monthly penalty would be $24.75.

There is no penalty when the first lapse in coverage during a year is less than three months.

Insurance Marketplaces

Residents of states that did not set up their own exchanges must use the federal marketplace.

All policies sold through a marketplace have standardized applications, no pre-existing exclusions, and pre-set copays and deductibles. Where an insured family’s household income is between 100% and 200% of the federal poverty level, copays and deductibles are reduced by two-thirds. They are reduced by 1/2 where the insured’s income is between 200% and 300%, and 1/3 for those between 300% and 400%. Individuals who need to purchase health insurance are not required to use the government marketplaces – they can purchase plans privately. However, privately purchased plans will not be eligible for the premium assistance credit or subsidy, but if they meet the minimum essential coverage requirements, they will qualify the individual to avoid the mandatory coverage penalty. Those shopping for health insurance should check both the private and government marketplaces to compare their net out-of-pocket premium costs.


The filer, or filers if filing jointly, is subject to the penalty for every dependent that can be claimed on their tax return. That includes children, parents, and other related individuals. This is true even if they do not claim the dependent, but were qualified to do so.

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By | 2014-02-24T09:50:38-07:00 February 24th, 2014|Blog, Business Advice|1 Comment

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