Additional modifications to health care are anticipated for 2013 and 2014. (See Healthcare Changes for Small Business, part 1: 2010-2011 for the first installment.)
Changes starting in 2013
Beginning in 2013, the itemized medical expense deduction floor will be raised from 7.5% to 10% in order to limit tax-subsidized medical expenses.
Estates and trusts will be required to pay a Medicare contribution tax of 3.8% on the lesser of either their undistributed net investment income, or of their adjusted gross income in surplus of $11,200 (the current highest tax bracket threshold).
In addition, a tax of 0.9% will be instated on earned income over $200,000 (for individuals) or $250,000 (for families). Individuals and families with income over these limits will be required to pay a Medicare contribution tax of 3.8% on the lesser of either their net annual investment income (including interest, royalties, dividends, rent, trade or business income, self-employment income, estates, trust and property), or of the amount of their annual gross income exceeding the $200,000 or $250,000 limit.
Starting in 2014
Beginning in 2014, small business owners will be able to buy health insurance for groups of over 100 employees via the SHOP insurance programs set up in 2011 (see Healthcare Changes for Small Business, part 2: 2010-2011). In 2014 and 2015 only, small businesses that purchase group health insurance plans through SHOP will receive a tax credit of 50% on these contributions.
Meanwhile, companies with over 50 employees will be penalized $2,000 annually for every employee who ends up on a government-subsidized health care plan rather than being covered by an employee plan. Most people who are not eligible for Medicaid, Medicare, other government-sponsored coverage, or some form of employer-provided health insurance will be required to maintain their own minimal coverage or pay a penalty.
Low income households – those with income levels between 100% and 400% of the Federal Poverty Line – will qualify for a refundable health insurance premium tax credit. The Federal Poverty Line is current set at $10,830 for an individual, $3,740 per additional person and $22,050 for a family of four.
Finally, corporations with assets of over $1 billion will be required to pay higher estimated tax payments in July, August, and September of 2014 as this figure is raised to 15.75%.